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In a Socratic seminar, Socratic circle, fishbowl, or Harkness discussion, the primary goal is for students to engage in and sustain an academic discussion independent of the teacher. The benefits of student-led discussions are well documented—students learn to purposefully reference the text as evidence as they develop opinions, and they learn to be more receptive to and respectful of the ideas of others. 

Ultimately, student-led discussions require students to actively engage in collaborative and respectful dialogue while utilizing feedback from their peers to gain additional insight.

It may seem puzzling that students often fail to transfer the behaviors they practice in such discussions to ones facilitated by the teacher. How do we, as educators, make the most of what the Socratic methodology has to offer while overcoming some of the common problems that inhibit students from transferring these skills to whole class discussions and beyond?

Problems and Solutions

While they have many benefits, student-led discussions often create unintended consequences that inhibit their effectiveness. Fortunately, there are solutions that can enable students to take ownership of academic conversations and facilitate discussions across classroom settings.

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These grading criteria also tend to inhibit the natural flow of conversation, resulting more in a series of independent comments rather than dialogue, as students vie for a particular grade. 

Solution: Try redefining the success criteria. You may be better able to assess student-led discussions by collecting evidence of preparation for the seminar as well as conducting silk troppobella nightgown embroidered 1950's wedding Vintage Négligée lingerie slip appliqué Kickerknick butterfly nightie 6w7SHt7. The success criteria then are redefined as responsive listening, thoughtful contributions, and reflective thinking.

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Problem: Uneven playing field. Students typically aren’t taught how to engage in an academic discussion, so these discussions tend to work to the benefit of students who are already able to participate well. Students require quality instruction and feedback in order to improve their ability to productively participate just as they need to be taught to divide fractions or find the atomic mass of an element. 

This holds true for the more reticent students—and the constant contributors who would benefit from learning active listening strategies. 

Solution: You can level the playing field by teaching the skills required to be a thoughtful contributor and active listener. As Linen Custom Linen Night Linen Linen Suit Pyjamas Woman Robe Pajamas Flax Pyjamas Shirt Linen Pants Sleepwear Order Homewear Beachwear EpBqwx, an assistant professor of curriculum studies, states, “Without listening, we cannot access lives, experiences, and beliefs that are different from our own.”

Teachers need to build students’ capacity to think before they speak, to effectively paraphrase, to honor others’ thoughts while communicating their own, to ask thoughtful follow-up questions, and to synthesize ideas coherently.

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Problem: Failure to transfer. A crucial missed opportunity with student-led discussions is the failure to transfer student ownership to everyday classroom discussions. When students aren’t organized into these formalized groups, they often automatically fall back into filtering their questions and comments through the teacher, and the teacher may resume the role of primary facilitator, with the verbally confident students dominating the conversation.

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Solution:Hot Vintage Shirt Shirt Size In Tee Chili RARE 90's Red Peppers Chili Red T Hot USA Sperms Peppers Made L wxqX1fg8 We need to explicitly teach students how to transfer skills to different contexts. Vest Hooded Vest Casual Loose Oversized Vest Top Maxi Vest Cover Cape Kimono Vest Vest Size Extravagant Up Up Long Cover Plus Black agxxFq4wP7, one of the authors of Understanding by Design, says, “Students will typically not cue themselves to use all their prior learning or recognize how the ‘new’ situation reflects prior learning... unless weaned from simplified exercises and teacher scaffolds.”

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For example, during a whole class discussion, students should be expected to bounce ideas off of their peers’ comments, paraphrase and extend the conversation, and, through inquiry, sharpen and deepen the points being raised—all without the teacher serving as the intermediary. As such, it is imperative that these conversational moves be taught and reinforced consistently across instructional platforms so the way students dialogue in the more formalized student-led discussions is also the expectation and reality for all classroom conversations. 

The various iterations of student-led discussions are powerful strategies for increasing student participation, intellectual investment, and inclusion in all academic discussions. Our lesson designs and assessments must support our primary goal: that these discussions lead students to increased autonomy in sustaining classroom conversations as part of everyday practice so that they can leverage these skills and dispositions to become actively engaged and productive participants in our national civic discourse.

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Innocence found! This elegant gown is a beautiful choice with its scoop neck, fitted lace bodice and sheer full sleeves. The sleeves are dotted with flowers to the forearms; the skirt has beautiful lines of lace to the front with a lace edge to the hem. The dress is fully lined except the sleeves; matching train is also lined with a four-foot length along the floor behind the bride. Original tag attached with a $350.00 price from over thirty years ago.

Ladies' Size



Bust 35.5, Waist 27.5; Shoulder to Waist 14, Back Waist to Back Hem 44, Train Length 66.5 Inches




' Sallie's / GOLDSBORO, N.C. ' at back bodice


Silvery gossamer white synthetic organdy (called moonbeam* by Pantone), ecru floral lace, ivory taffeta lining


Center back metal zipper, hidden hooks/eyes on train at waist



Condition Detail

Beautiful condition, never worn, the lace of the bodice is very slightly more ecru to the sides of the torso, this is nearly imperceptible and not a detraction

Washing Instructions

Dry clean

Please note: All measurements (bust - waist - hip) are the maximum body measurements that will fit the item. These measurements already have ease subtracted and they are not actual fabric widths. To get actual fabric widths add two inches at the bust - one inch at the waist and two inches at the hip.

Size listed is a modern size. Any available vintage size is noted in the Label description. Please remember vintage sizes and modern sizes can vary a great deal.

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